CLIVAR/GEWEX Monsoons Panel

About Us

Regions where at least 70% of annual precipitation occurs in the 5-month seasons indicated.

This is only one of many possible definitions of monsoon regimes around the globe. Data are from GPCP version 2.5 For 1979-2008 provided by P. Dirmeyer



The monsoons are global phenomena, in all cases with seasonal reversals in the prevailing wind direction giving rise to dramatic changes in rainfall. The monsoon circulation evolves as a result of tropospheric temperature gradients that develop during springtime, to first order attributable to differential heating of the underlying land and ocean. Monsoons can be grouped into the Asia-Australia, African and American regions.

Progress in our scientific understanding of monsoons will benefit from the interaction of individuals and groups studying these various regions. CLIVAR (Climate and Ocean: Variability, Predictability and Change) research into ocean-atmosphere interaction and the role of slowly varying modes that lend predictability to the monsoons are of direct relevance to the Monsoons Panel; furthermore, GEWEX (Global Water and Energy Exchanges) activities in land-atmosphere interaction and convective scale processes are key to understanding monsoons at fine and global scales. As a result, a single Monsoons Panel spanning CLIVAR and GEWEX is convened of membership drawn from both communities; the panel  reports to both CLIVAR and GEWEX Scientific Steering Groups.


The Monsoons Panel has established a structure of Regional Monsoon Working Groups, comprising the Asia-Australia, Americas and Africa regions. The Panel explores a more global view of monsoon activities, enabling knowledge and best practice to be shared between the various monsoon regions. It attempts to better coordinate monsoons research between GEWEX and CLIVAR, particularly in emphasizing the role of convection and land surface in the monsoons, in addition to ocean-atmosphere interaction.

Working groups under the Panel are leading regionally focused monsoon research in each of the three areas of globe. The Panel has been defining concrete activities to be fostered in the coming years, coordinating the regional working groups, and acting as a hub to facilitate meetings and linkages among international research efforts. Advancing understanding of monsoon variability and improving prediction remain the principal goals promoted by the Monsoons Panel, but greater emphasis is being placed on linkages across scales and to phenomena that have historically been outside the purview of classical monsoon research. Observation and modelling are still the cornerstones of the research efforts. The Panel seeks to bring new methods and fresh perspectives to the problem that can enhance monitoring, advance diagnostic efforts, and improve component and coupled models.  Thus, key to these efforts will be the development of new and better process studies (particularly, emphasizing the role of convection and land-surface processes in monsoon models), coordinating with relevant modelling efforts including those related to climate change, and empowering the next generation of young scientists from around the world to advance our knowledge of monsoon systems. Scientific works include observational field campaign and process modelling work, coordination of and contribution to climate change efforts in CMIP6, and utilising our understanding of sub-to-seasonal variability to aid enhancement of monsoon prediction on these scales.

The Monsoons Panel is supported by the International Monsoons Project Office (IMPO), hosted by the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM) located in Pune, India. 

Plans for 2018 and beyond:

Better integration of CLIVAR and GEWEX monsoons activities, such as GEWEX GLASS and GEWEX GASS (land-atmosphere and convection, in particular).

Exploiting the early outputs of the Global Monsoons MIP and CMIP6 DECK experiments. Plans for coordinated analysis at the regional monsoon scale, and the global monsoon scale, following a discussion forum held during the 6thInternational Workshop on Monsoons, November 2017 in Singapore.

The Monsoons panel will continue to identify cross-regional commonalities in activity. The key identified activity of interest across the regions is understanding subseasonal-to-seasonal variability and exploiting it for better prediction. Regional priorities will continue to be identified by the Regional WGs.

Terms of Reference

  1. Indicate and update the research priorities, gaps and milestones regarding monsoon studies as outlined in the GEWEX/CLIVAR MP annual work plan.
  2. Coordinate strategies, advise on plans and define concrete activities, if possible, to carry out studies on the suggested research priorities, including selecting, limiting and concluding such activities as appropriate.
  3. Encourage studies on priority themes by groups from different monsoon domains, using common methods and tools, in order to allow global analyses or comparable results, and encourage, facilitate or promote collaboration between monsoon researchers (from existing groups).
  4. Enhance involvement/Promote/Stimulate the interest of researchers and students in monsoon-related topics, by organizing or supporting workshops and advanced schools, in addition to organizing, in scientific congresses, sessions on monsoon themes. Promote interactions among scientists from different disciplines (atmospheric scientists, oceanographers, hydrologists, and relevant others) interested in monsoon science activities.
  5. Coordinate the formation and function of regional working groups and to advise WCRP on the development of mechanisms of support for meetings of the regional working groups.
  6. Advise and coordinate with other WCRP and WWRP panels on issues important for advancing monsoon research, including new observational studies, process studies, and strategic priority setting for modelling/prediction studies.
  7. Support work in cooperation with regional, national and multinational programs that collaborate in improving the understanding of monsoon systems and are directed at improving regional weather forecasting, seasonal climate prediction and decadal to long-term climate projection.
  8. Communicate existing products and provide guidance on their (adequate) application and limitations to the operational community, (relevant) impacts community and participate in relevant training activities.
  9. Report to the CLIVAR and GEWEX Scientific Steering Groups on an annual basis or when requested.

Monsoons Panel Members

Name Role Year Institute Country
Suryachandra ANGULURI Co-Chair 2023 Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM) India
Leila Carvalho Co-Chair 2022 Earth Research Institute, UCSB USA
Gill Martin Member 2022 Met Office UK
Renguang Wu Member 2022 Zhejiang University China
Mouhamadou Bamba Sylla Member 2022 African Institute for Mathematical Sciences Rwanda
Mary Kayano Member 2023 Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais Brazil
Pankaj Kumar Member 2023 Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Bhopal India
Rondrotiana Barimalala Member 2023 Department of Oceanography, University of Cape Town South Africa
Mary Kilavi Member 2023 Kenya Meteorological Department Kenya
Ajaya Mohan Ravindran Member 2024 New York University Abu Dhabi United Arab Emirates
Shabehul Hasson Member 2024 University of Hamburg Germany
Annalisa Cherchi Member 2024 National Research Council, Institute of the Atmospheric Science and Climate (CNR-ISAC) Italy
Thea Turkington Member 2024 Centre for Climate Research Singapore Singapore
Salvatore Pascale Member 2024 Stanford University USA